Painkillers, ointments, and injections are widely used in medicine to alleviate the patient’s condition. They are used both in the background of general therapy and during the postoperative period. It is used to relieve pain and improve well-being. Anesthetics are selected individually, taking into account the severity of discomfort, patient sensitivity and the degree of pain threshold. During treatment of the same disease, different patients may need both a strong analgesic and a drug with a less expressed analgesic effect, for example, a non-narcotic analgesic.
Types and classification of painkillers
Pharmacological products are classified in accordance with the composition and specificity of exposure to the body. Most drugs whose action is aimed at getting rid of pain are known as analgesics. They, in turn, are divided into two large groups:
- narcotic drugs are substances that cannot be purchased without a doctor’s prescription. Such funds are sent under strict control directly to healthcare institutions. Narcotic analgesics can be chosen as an adequate method of pain relief in the postoperative period, with severe injuries, burns, during palliative therapy of seriously ill patients. The action of the drug is aimed at inhibiting certain areas of the central nervous system with the suppression of their functions. The drug blocks the transmission of a nerve impulse to the brain. Narcotic pain medications have an additional therapeutic effect – weakening of nervous tension, anxiety. With prolonged use, a dependence develops, because the process of applying the funds is controlled by the doctor;
- non-narcotic painkillers – drugs that can be purchased through a wholesale or retail pharmacy network. It is based on paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid, alkanoic acids, etc. Their purpose is relevant for mild or moderate symptoms: headache, toothache, joint pain. The substances are relatively safe, not addictive even with prolonged treatment.
- combined drugs can have both an anesthetic and an antispasmodic or antipyretic effect. The form of pharmaceutical products is different. Medications are available in the form of capsules, tablets for oral administration, solutions for injection, ointments, gels, suppositories, etc. Any anesthetic drug acts for a strictly defined period of time, which means that the reception will have to be repeated after 4-5 hours.